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8492103

8492103

, ingressiv(er Aspekt) —-> inchoativ Inhalt 34, 39, 45 fE, 55 E, 73 E, 76, 84, 92, EE, ,,,, , fE, E, , Inhaltswort Dez. MAGAZIN; Startseite · Lieferprogramm · Fotodatenbank · Termine · Kleinanzeigen · Links; GEMEINSCHAFT; Foren · Galerie · Treff;. 2. Juli 44,47, 42,,,,, 16 53,84,92,,,, 5,,2 6,3 68, 69 33, 16 69,,,,, + E-Mail. [email protected] Homepage. > cognitivesystems.eu · CasaBrema.

The peptide corresponding to the predicted hydrophilic sequence of amino acids of P reacted with Ehrlichia antibody. A Ehrlichia Hsp60 peptide reacted with antibodies from five dogs infected with E.

B P peptide reacted with antibodies from five dogs infected with E. Each bar represents the mean of three replicates. The positive samples are significantly different from negative samples.

C P peptide did not react with antibodies from mice infected with Rickettsia or Orientia. D Ehrlichia Hsp60 peptide did not react with antibodies from mice infected with Rickettsia or Orientia.

A Mice immunized with Ehrlichia Hsp60 were protected against E. B Mice immunized with P peptide was protected against E. B P peptide vaccinated mice induced higher IgG antibody levels after E.

The data were expressed as mean plus standard deviation and three mice per group were included for analysis. A Mice infected with E.

B Absolute numbers of E. Ehrlichioses are tick-borne diseases of veterinary medical importance and are also important emerging infectious diseases in humans.

P28s are encoded by multigene families with ORFs tandemly arranged with intergenic spaces of variable lengths Crocquet-Valdes et al.

The P28 protein is the major antigenic protein of Ehrlichia as determined by Western blotting Thomas et al. As P28 is the major antigenic protein, it was contemplated by the inventors that P28 could be used as a diagnostic or vaccine.

The inventors contemplated that peptides will provide better diagnostic and vaccine candidates compared to the whole recombinant proteins.

Three peptides of the P antigenic protein were designed of which the P was found to be highly sensitive in detection of Ehrlichia.

The peptide was also very sensitive in diagnosis of Ehrlichia compared to the whole recombinant P As the sequence of this peptide is highly conserved in Ehrlichia it could be used in diagnosis of any species of Ehrlichia.

Diagnosis of antibodies of Ehrlichia from different species by the peptides demonstrated that they could be used in diagnosis of Ehrlichia.

The peptides did not cross-react with the antibody of different species of Rickettsia or Orientia demonstrating that they are highly specific for only Ehrlichia.

Publicly available software can be used to compare sequences and identify those that are substantially homologous.

In one aspect, the peptide may be dispersed in a pharmaceutically acceptable composition. The preparation of an aqueous composition that contains a protein as an active ingredient is well understood in the art.

Typically, such compositions are prepared as injectables, either as liquid solutions or suspensions; solid forms suitable for solution in, or suspension in, liquid prior to injection can also be prepared.

The preparation can also be emulsified. A protein may be formulated into a composition in a neutral or salt form. Pharmaceutically acceptable salts, include the acid addition salts formed with the free amino groups of the protein and which are formed with inorganic acids such as, for example, hydrochloric or phosphoric acids, or such organic acids as acetic, oxalic, tartaric, mandelic, and the like.

Salts formed with the free carboxyl groups can also be derived from inorganic bases such as, for example, sodium, potassium, ammonium, calcium, or ferric hydroxides, and such organic bases as isopropylamine, trimethylamine, histidine, procaine and the like.

Upon formulation, solutions will be administered in a manner compatible with the dosage formulation and in such amount as is therapeutically effective.

The formulations are easily administered in a variety of dosage forms such as injectable solutions. For parenteral administration in an aqueous solution, for example, the solution should be suitably buffered if necessary and the liquid diluent first rendered isotonic with sufficient saline or glucose.

These particular aqueous solutions are especially suitable for intravenous, intramuscular, subcutaneous and intraperitoneal administration.

In this connection, sterile aqueous media that can be employed will be known to those of skill in the art in light of the present disclosure. Some variation in dosage will necessarily occur depending on the condition of the subject being treated.

The person responsible for administration will, in any event, determine the appropriate dose for the individual subject.

Peptides may further comprise a label. In one aspect of this embodiment of the present invention, the peptide is chemically synthesized. In one aspect of this embodiment, the peptide is produced in a host cell.

The peptide may further comprise a carrier. Further, the peptide may be conjugated to the carrier. For example, the protein and carrier may be conjugated by glutaraldehyde, m-maleimidobenzoyl-N-hydroxy-succinimide ester, carbo-diimide or bis-biazotized benzidine.

Representative examples of useful carriers include keyhole limpet hemocyanin KLH , human serum albumin, a lymphokine, or an adjuvant.

As is well known in the art, a given polypeptide may vary in its immunogenicity. In certain aspects, an immunogen may be coupled e.

Exemplary and preferred carriers are keyhole limpet hemocyanin KLH and human serum albumin. Means for conjugating a peptide to a carrier protein are well known in the art and include glutaraldehyde, m-maleimidobenzoyl-N-hydroxysuccinimide ester, carbo-diimide and bis-biazotized benzidine.

It is also understood that the peptide may be conjugated to a protein by genetic engineering techniques that are well known in the art, such as peptide fusion.

As is also well known in the art, immunogenicity to a particular immunogen can be enhanced by the use of non-specific stimulators of the immune response known as adjuvants.

In another embodiment, the present invention provides an antibody that is directed against, i. In another embodiment, the present invention provides a method of determining whether a subject is infected with Ehrlichia , comprising the steps of: The subject can be a dog, a human, or a ruminant.

In one aspect of this embodiment of the present invention, the sample is a biological sample, such as a serum. Samples also include biological material derived from a tick or other insect.

Ehrlichia includes, but is not limited to Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Ehrlichia muris , and Ehrlichia canis. Labels include, but are not limited to moieties that are directly or indirectly detectable such as radioactive elements, enzymes, fluorescent molecules or chemicals, and others.

A number of fluorescent materials are known and can be utilized as labels. A particular detecting material is anti-rabbit antibody prepared in goats and conjugated with fluorescein, e.

The radioactive label can be detected by any of the currently available counting or detection procedures. Enzyme labels can be detected by any of the presently utilized calorimetric, spectrophotometric, fluorospectrophotometric, amperometric or gasometric techniques.

The enzyme is conjugated to the selected particle by reaction with bridging molecules such as carbodiimides, diisocyanates, glutaraldehyde and the like.

A protein is substantially free of naturally associated components when it is separated from at least some of those contaminants that accompany it in its natural state.

Thus, a protein that is chemically synthesized or produced in a cellular system different from the cell from which it naturally originates will be, by definition, substantially free from its naturally associated components.

Accordingly, substantially pure proteins include eukaryotic proteins synthesized in E. In accordance with the present invention there may be employed conventional molecular biology, microbiology, and recombinant DNA techniques.

Such techniques are explained fully in the literature. A recombinant DNA molecule or gene that encodes a peptide as described herein, e.

Prokaryotic host cells may include E. Eukaryotic host cells include yeasts such as Pichia pastoris , mammalian cells and insect cells. Therefore, engineered cells are distinguishable from naturally occurring cells that do not contain a recombinantly introduced gene.

Engineered cells are thus cells having a gene or genes introduced through the hand of man. Recombinantly introduced genes will either be in the form of a cDNA gene, a copy of a genomic gene, or will include genes positioned adjacent to a promoter not naturally associated with the particular introduced gene.

In addition, the recombinant gene may be integrated into the host genome, or it may be contained in a vector, or in a bacterial genome transfected into the host cell.

An expression vector is a replicable construct in which a nucleic acid sequence encoding a polypeptide is operably linked to suitable control sequences capable of effecting expression of the polypeptide in a cell.

The need for such control sequences will vary depending upon the cell selected and the transformation method chosen.

Methods, which are well known to those skilled in the art, can be used to construct expression vectors containing appropriate transcriptional and translational control signals.

See for example, the techniques described in Sambrook et al. A Laboratory Manual 2nd Ed. Vectors of the invention include, but are not limited to, plasmid vectors and viral vectors.

Preferred viral vectors of the invention are those derived from retroviruses, adenovirus, adeno-associated virus, SV40 virus, or herpes viruses.

The following examples as well as the figures are included to demonstrate preferred embodiments of the invention. It should be appreciated by those of skill in the art that the techniques disclosed in the examples or figures represent techniques discovered by the inventors to function well in the practice of the invention, and thus can be considered to constitute preferred modes for its practice.

However, those of skill in the art should, in light of the present disclosure, appreciate that many changes can be made in the specific embodiments which are disclosed and still obtain a like or similar result without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.

To detect Ehrlichia antigens binding to the complement C1Q, E. The blot was probed with mouse anti- E. Finally the blots were incubated with chemiluminescence substrate Millipore, MA and the blot exposed to a film Kodak.

Muris Using Different P28 Peptides. Finally, they were probed with goat anti-mouse AP 1: Following incubation with mice sera they were incubated with goat anti-mouse AP 1: To determine the specificity of the P peptide, they were coated with P and incubated with sera of mice 1: Following incubation with mice sera, they were incubated with goat anti-mouse AP 1: P peptides were injected in mice 50 micrograms two doses, 15 days apart and the serum collected on day 45 after the first injection.

DH82 cells infected with E. The antibody recognized P28 protein FIG. The P28 antigen was post-translationally modified.

Though complement proteins are known to be involved in innate immunity, mediate endocytosis of intracellular bacteria and are involved in adaptive immune upregulation, the role of complement in Ehrlichia infection has not been demonstrated.

The complement proteins effectiveness in initial defense and as stimulators of acquired immunity is determined by its ability to link itself physically to the antigens of invading microorganisms Nielson and Leslie, The complement proteins bind to the IgG or IgM isotypes, which in turn bind to the antigenic proteins.

Studies demonstrated that Ehrlichia infection led to an increase in complement proteins and immunoglobulins. The antigenic protein profile of E.

The complement proteins bound to the Ehrlichia antigens: As P28 was found binding to the antibody as well as complement proteins, it was decided to use it as a probe to detect Ehrlichia.

The P protein sequence was used to design immunogenic peptides. When examining a protein sequence for potential antigenic epitopes; it is important to choose sequences that are hydrophilic, surface-oriented, and flexible.

Most naturally occurring proteins in aqueous solutions have their hydrophilic residues on the protein surface and hydrophobic residues buried in the interior.

This optimization is based on the fact that antibodies tend to bind to epitopes on the protein surface. Additionally, it has been shown that epitopes have a high degree of mobility.

When designing a peptide for antibody production, the first task is to decide upon the desired location of the antibody-binding site on the protein of interest.

Hydropathy plots of the amino acid sequence can be performed to determine the hydrophilicity of various regions of the protein Kyte and Doolittle, Because hydrophilic regions are more likely to be exposed on the protein, an anti-peptide antibody to a hydrophilic sequence will be more likely to recognize the protein.

Also, hydrophilic peptides dissolve more easily in aqueous solutions and are easier to work with. Three regions of the E. The peptides corresponded to amino acids , , Table 1.

The peptides showed homology to other, Ehrlichia species Table 2. All the three peptides reacted with Ehrlichia muris antibodies in the sera of infected mice.

However, peptide 1 was found to be more sensitive in detecting the Ehrlichia -specific antibody FIG. The peptide could detect Ehrlichia antibody even on day 7.

Hence peptide 1 was further used for detection of the Ehrlichia antibodies in other infected animals. The P28 peptide was also found to be more sensitive for the detection of Ehrlichia antibodies than the recombinant P28 protein FIG.

As the peptide 1 of P was more sensitive than the other peptides, this peptide was used to detect Ehrlichia antibody from dogs infected with E.

The P28 peptide was very sensitive in detecting Ehrlichia antibodies of dogs infected with each of the three species of Ehrlichia. The P28 was also sensitive for detection of Ehrlichia antibody in human serum.

These P peptides were also used to determine antibody production when mice were vaccinated with Ehrlichia Hsp60 peptides followed by challenge with E.

Vaccinated mice produced large amount of antibodies compared to unvaccinated mice. The P28 peptides did not cross-react with other species of the family Rickettsiaceae R.

Immunofluorescence Microscopic Detection of E. As the peptide P was found to be very sensitive in detection by ELISA and produced highly sensitive antibodies than other peptides, they were used to detect E.

The antibody produced against P could detect E. Since the P and Ehrlichia Hsp60 epitope peptides induced antibodies, the inventors reasoned that they also could provide protection against Ehrlichia thereby functioning as potential vaccine candidates.

To prove our hypothesis mice were injected with P or Ehrlichia Hsp60 epitope peptides and challenged 30 days later with E. The spleen and liver were collected at different days after bacterial challenge and the bacterial copy number determined by quantitative real time PCR.

A lower bacterial load was observed in both spleen and liver on days 7 and 14 after bacterial infection in the vaccinated mice compared to unvaccinated controls FIG.

The results demonstrated that P and Ehrlichia Hsp60 peptides functioned as vaccine candidates and provided protection against Ehrlichia infection.

Immunization with vaccines stimulates the immune system to produce a robust antibody response that can provide protection against pathogens.

To determine the antibody responses against the Ehrlichia Hsp60 peptide vaccine, blood was collected from vaccinated mice on days 7 and 14 and performed ELISA.

There was a significant difference in the antibody response between unvaccinated and Ehrlichia Hsp60 vaccinated mice after challenge with E.

However, there was no difference between the antibody levels in vaccinated mice between days 7 and The Ehrlichia Hsp60 -specific antibody levels in infected unvaccinated mice were highest on day 14 compared to day 7 FIG.

To determine the antibody responses against the P peptide vaccine, we collected blood from immunized mice on days 7 and 14 and subjected the samples to ELISA.

There was a significant difference in the antibody response between unvaccinated and P vaccinated mice after challenge with E. Antibody levels were higher on day 14 compared to day 7 FIG.

As antibody isotype responses can be useful indicators of immune bias during infection Fairlie-Clarke et al. The level of antibody isotypes increased by day 14 compared to day 7 after bacterial challenge data not shown.

The isotypes of the antibodies of P peptide in vaccinated and unvaccinated mice after challenge with E. The P vaccinated mice challenged with E.

Flow cytometry was used to determine if Ehrlichia Hsp60 and P specific memory T cells are induced during E. Compared to uninfected naive mice, E.

To determine a protein sequence for potential antigenic epitopes, sequences that are hydrophilic, surface-oriented, and flexible are selected.

Hydrophilic sequences of both the Ehrlichia P and Hsp60 proteins were selected with no hydrophobic residues. The sequences showed homology to other Ehrlichia species.

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These particular aqueous solutions are especially suitable for intravenous, intramuscular, subcutaneous and intraperitoneal administration.

In this connection, sterile aqueous media that can be employed will be known to those of skill in the art in light of the present disclosure.

Some variation in dosage will necessarily occur depending on the condition of the subject being treated. The person responsible for administration will, in any event, determine the appropriate dose for the individual subject.

Peptides may further comprise a label. In one aspect of this embodiment of the present invention, the peptide is chemically synthesized.

In one aspect of this embodiment, the peptide is produced in a host cell. The peptide may further comprise a carrier. Further, the peptide may be conjugated to the carrier.

For example, the protein and carrier may be conjugated by glutaraldehyde, m-maleimidobenzoyl-N-hydroxy-succinimide ester, carbo-diimide or bis-biazotized benzidine.

Representative examples of useful carriers include keyhole limpet hemocyanin KLH , human serum albumin, a lymphokine, or an adjuvant.

As is well known in the art, a given polypeptide may vary in its immunogenicity. In certain aspects, an immunogen may be coupled e. Exemplary and preferred carriers are keyhole limpet hemocyanin KLH and human serum albumin.

Means for conjugating a peptide to a carrier protein are well known in the art and include glutaraldehyde, m-maleimidobenzoyl-N-hydroxysuccinimide ester, carbo-diimide and bis-biazotized benzidine.

It is also understood that the peptide may be conjugated to a protein by genetic engineering techniques that are well known in the art, such as peptide fusion.

As is also well known in the art, immunogenicity to a particular immunogen can be enhanced by the use of non-specific stimulators of the immune response known as adjuvants.

In another embodiment, the present invention provides an antibody that is directed against, i. In another embodiment, the present invention provides a method of determining whether a subject is infected with Ehrlichia , comprising the steps of: The subject can be a dog, a human, or a ruminant.

In one aspect of this embodiment of the present invention, the sample is a biological sample, such as a serum. Samples also include biological material derived from a tick or other insect.

Ehrlichia includes, but is not limited to Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Ehrlichia muris , and Ehrlichia canis. Labels include, but are not limited to moieties that are directly or indirectly detectable such as radioactive elements, enzymes, fluorescent molecules or chemicals, and others.

A number of fluorescent materials are known and can be utilized as labels. A particular detecting material is anti-rabbit antibody prepared in goats and conjugated with fluorescein, e.

The radioactive label can be detected by any of the currently available counting or detection procedures. Enzyme labels can be detected by any of the presently utilized calorimetric, spectrophotometric, fluorospectrophotometric, amperometric or gasometric techniques.

The enzyme is conjugated to the selected particle by reaction with bridging molecules such as carbodiimides, diisocyanates, glutaraldehyde and the like.

A protein is substantially free of naturally associated components when it is separated from at least some of those contaminants that accompany it in its natural state.

Thus, a protein that is chemically synthesized or produced in a cellular system different from the cell from which it naturally originates will be, by definition, substantially free from its naturally associated components.

Accordingly, substantially pure proteins include eukaryotic proteins synthesized in E. In accordance with the present invention there may be employed conventional molecular biology, microbiology, and recombinant DNA techniques.

Such techniques are explained fully in the literature. A recombinant DNA molecule or gene that encodes a peptide as described herein, e.

Prokaryotic host cells may include E. Eukaryotic host cells include yeasts such as Pichia pastoris , mammalian cells and insect cells. Therefore, engineered cells are distinguishable from naturally occurring cells that do not contain a recombinantly introduced gene.

Engineered cells are thus cells having a gene or genes introduced through the hand of man. Recombinantly introduced genes will either be in the form of a cDNA gene, a copy of a genomic gene, or will include genes positioned adjacent to a promoter not naturally associated with the particular introduced gene.

In addition, the recombinant gene may be integrated into the host genome, or it may be contained in a vector, or in a bacterial genome transfected into the host cell.

An expression vector is a replicable construct in which a nucleic acid sequence encoding a polypeptide is operably linked to suitable control sequences capable of effecting expression of the polypeptide in a cell.

The need for such control sequences will vary depending upon the cell selected and the transformation method chosen. Methods, which are well known to those skilled in the art, can be used to construct expression vectors containing appropriate transcriptional and translational control signals.

See for example, the techniques described in Sambrook et al. A Laboratory Manual 2nd Ed. Vectors of the invention include, but are not limited to, plasmid vectors and viral vectors.

Preferred viral vectors of the invention are those derived from retroviruses, adenovirus, adeno-associated virus, SV40 virus, or herpes viruses.

The following examples as well as the figures are included to demonstrate preferred embodiments of the invention. It should be appreciated by those of skill in the art that the techniques disclosed in the examples or figures represent techniques discovered by the inventors to function well in the practice of the invention, and thus can be considered to constitute preferred modes for its practice.

However, those of skill in the art should, in light of the present disclosure, appreciate that many changes can be made in the specific embodiments which are disclosed and still obtain a like or similar result without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.

To detect Ehrlichia antigens binding to the complement C1Q, E. The blot was probed with mouse anti- E.

Finally the blots were incubated with chemiluminescence substrate Millipore, MA and the blot exposed to a film Kodak. Muris Using Different P28 Peptides.

Finally, they were probed with goat anti-mouse AP 1: Following incubation with mice sera they were incubated with goat anti-mouse AP 1: To determine the specificity of the P peptide, they were coated with P and incubated with sera of mice 1: Following incubation with mice sera, they were incubated with goat anti-mouse AP 1: P peptides were injected in mice 50 micrograms two doses, 15 days apart and the serum collected on day 45 after the first injection.

DH82 cells infected with E. The antibody recognized P28 protein FIG. The P28 antigen was post-translationally modified.

Though complement proteins are known to be involved in innate immunity, mediate endocytosis of intracellular bacteria and are involved in adaptive immune upregulation, the role of complement in Ehrlichia infection has not been demonstrated.

The complement proteins effectiveness in initial defense and as stimulators of acquired immunity is determined by its ability to link itself physically to the antigens of invading microorganisms Nielson and Leslie, The complement proteins bind to the IgG or IgM isotypes, which in turn bind to the antigenic proteins.

Studies demonstrated that Ehrlichia infection led to an increase in complement proteins and immunoglobulins. The antigenic protein profile of E.

The complement proteins bound to the Ehrlichia antigens: As P28 was found binding to the antibody as well as complement proteins, it was decided to use it as a probe to detect Ehrlichia.

The P protein sequence was used to design immunogenic peptides. When examining a protein sequence for potential antigenic epitopes; it is important to choose sequences that are hydrophilic, surface-oriented, and flexible.

Most naturally occurring proteins in aqueous solutions have their hydrophilic residues on the protein surface and hydrophobic residues buried in the interior.

This optimization is based on the fact that antibodies tend to bind to epitopes on the protein surface. Additionally, it has been shown that epitopes have a high degree of mobility.

When designing a peptide for antibody production, the first task is to decide upon the desired location of the antibody-binding site on the protein of interest.

Hydropathy plots of the amino acid sequence can be performed to determine the hydrophilicity of various regions of the protein Kyte and Doolittle, Because hydrophilic regions are more likely to be exposed on the protein, an anti-peptide antibody to a hydrophilic sequence will be more likely to recognize the protein.

Also, hydrophilic peptides dissolve more easily in aqueous solutions and are easier to work with. Three regions of the E. The peptides corresponded to amino acids , , Table 1.

The peptides showed homology to other, Ehrlichia species Table 2. All the three peptides reacted with Ehrlichia muris antibodies in the sera of infected mice.

However, peptide 1 was found to be more sensitive in detecting the Ehrlichia -specific antibody FIG. The peptide could detect Ehrlichia antibody even on day 7.

Hence peptide 1 was further used for detection of the Ehrlichia antibodies in other infected animals. The P28 peptide was also found to be more sensitive for the detection of Ehrlichia antibodies than the recombinant P28 protein FIG.

As the peptide 1 of P was more sensitive than the other peptides, this peptide was used to detect Ehrlichia antibody from dogs infected with E.

The P28 peptide was very sensitive in detecting Ehrlichia antibodies of dogs infected with each of the three species of Ehrlichia. The P28 was also sensitive for detection of Ehrlichia antibody in human serum.

These P peptides were also used to determine antibody production when mice were vaccinated with Ehrlichia Hsp60 peptides followed by challenge with E.

Vaccinated mice produced large amount of antibodies compared to unvaccinated mice. The P28 peptides did not cross-react with other species of the family Rickettsiaceae R.

Immunofluorescence Microscopic Detection of E. As the peptide P was found to be very sensitive in detection by ELISA and produced highly sensitive antibodies than other peptides, they were used to detect E.

The antibody produced against P could detect E. Since the P and Ehrlichia Hsp60 epitope peptides induced antibodies, the inventors reasoned that they also could provide protection against Ehrlichia thereby functioning as potential vaccine candidates.

To prove our hypothesis mice were injected with P or Ehrlichia Hsp60 epitope peptides and challenged 30 days later with E. The spleen and liver were collected at different days after bacterial challenge and the bacterial copy number determined by quantitative real time PCR.

A lower bacterial load was observed in both spleen and liver on days 7 and 14 after bacterial infection in the vaccinated mice compared to unvaccinated controls FIG.

The results demonstrated that P and Ehrlichia Hsp60 peptides functioned as vaccine candidates and provided protection against Ehrlichia infection.

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